### If X Is Causally Necessary For Y Then It Is Necessary That Y Is

I NEED HELP WITH #s 9,11,12,13,17 the most. Thank You

If x is causally necessary for y, then it is necessary that y is

___________________________________________________ for x.

2. Construct an evil twin for the following valid argument form:

P1:   If Not-Not-F then (Z and H)

P2:  Not-Not-F

C:   Z and H

3. Damning evidence might be known by the arguer to whose argument it applies.

(i.) TRUE               (ii.) FALSE            (iii.) Spurious!      (iv) unknowable

4. 0 + 0 = 5 is   _____________________________    for getting an A in this course.

5. Given a proof by contradiction (PBC) whose support is .2 and whose original premises are false, the negation of the conclusion  (i.) must be true    (ii.) cannot be true     (iii.) is perverse    (iv.) can’t be evaluated for truth.

6. If x is a node in a hierarchically organized tree structure, then it is  ________________________________    for all nodes in the tree structure higher than it.

7. P1: 7% of all Rutgers/Newark students will get drunk this weekend. P2: Booze-Head is a Rutgers/Newark student. What can be inductively concluded about Booze-Head from these premises?

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

8. (i.) Every     (ii.) Not every          (iii.) No               substitution instance of the following argument form is valid:

P1: If not-not-q then not-p

P2: Not-p

C:  Not-not-q

9. When you infer “x is causally sufficient for y” from “x is sufficient for y” without additional information, you have committed  the

_____________________________________________________________________.

10. (i.) Every     (ii.) Not every         (iii.) No               substitution instance of the following argument form is invalid:

P1: If not-p then not-not-q

P2: not-q

C:  not-not-p

11. Going to the seashore while listening to Schubert’s music is

________________________________________________    for squaring the circle.

12. The reason why a PBC with support 0 is worthless is that

____________________________________ in which the augmented premise set is true,

but you do not know which one it is.

13. When we conjecture x causes y and perform an experiment to prove this is so, how do we rule out the case that y causes x AND x and y occur at the same time?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

14. If you encounter a substitution instance of Disjunctive Syllogism in which the second premise is clearly false, is it rational for you to believe the conclusion?

(i)   YES         (ii)   NO       (iii) MAYBE     (iv) Indeterminate

15. Suppose that you conduct a poll for a Presidential Election (in the United States) by going to various medical care facilities to interview people both working there and who are there for medical treatments. Suppose you have a true random sample of all medical care facilities in the United States. Is your poll subject to the fallacy of bias?

(i)   YES         (ii)  NO